Glaucoma is a disease of the eye in which liquid weight inside the eye rises; whenever left untreated, the patient may lose vision and become blind.
Glaucoma is generally normal, particularly in adults and can make harm the optic nerve whenever left untreated.
In this article, we will cover the causes, side effects, and treatment of glaucoma. We will also clarify the different types and possible surgical procedures.
Fast facts on glaucoma:
- Glaucoma has been called the silent thief of sight.
- The main types of glaucoma are open-angle and closed-angle.
- Age and thyroid problems increase the risk of glaucoma.
- Symptoms can include severe eye pain.
- Treatment includes surgery and medicines.
What is glaucoma?
In short, glaucoma is a build up of pressure within the eye that causes damage to the optic nerve.
There is a small space in front of the eye called the anterior chamber. Clear liquid flows in and out of the anterior chamber, this fluid nourishes and bathes nearby tissues. If a patient has glaucoma, the fluid drains too slowly out of the eye. This leads to fluid build-up, and pressure inside the eye rises.
Unless this pressure is brought down and controlled, the optic nerve and other parts of the eye may become damaged, leading to loss of vision.
The disease usually affects both eyes, although one may be more severely affected than the other.
Treatments for glaucoma
Treatments include either improving the stream of liquid from the eye, reducing its production, or both:
Eye drops for glaucoma
In most cases, beginning treatment for glaucoma includes eye drops.
Consistency is crucial for best result and to prevent unfortunate reactions – this implies adhering to the specialist’s directions carefully.
Example of eyedrops include:
- prostaglandin analogs
- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
- cholinergic agents
- beta blockers
Side effects of eyedrops can incorporate stinging, redness, eyelash development, change in eye color and once in a while retinal separations and trouble relaxing. In the event that eyedrops are not sufficiently successful, the specialist may endorse an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Side effects are less in the event that they are taken during dinners. initial symptoms can incorporate shivering in the fingers and toes and incessant pee – in any case, following a couple of days, they generally resolve.
Significantly less regularly, there is a risk of rashes, kidney stones, stomach hurt, weight reduction, impotence, weariness, and a bizarre taste while devouring fizzy drinks.
Causes of glaucoma
Experts are unsure of the precise causes of glaucoma, but cases are divided into two categories:
Primary glaucoma – this means that the cause is unknown.
Secondary glaucoma – the condition has a known cause, such as a tumor, diabetes, an advanced cataract, or inflammation.
There are several risk factors for glaucoma:
- Old age.
- Ethnic background – East Asians, African Americans, and those of Hispanic descent have a higher risk of developing glaucoma, compared with Caucasians.
- Some illnesses and conditions – like diabetes or hypothyroidism.
- Eye injuries or conditions.
- Eye surgery.
- Myopia (nearsightedness).
Patients on long haul corticosteroids have a raised danger of building up a few unique conditions, including glaucoma. The risk is much more noteworthy with eye drops containing corticosteroids.
Types of glaucoma
There are two main types: open-angle and closed-angle glaucoma.
Closed-angle glaucoma (acute angle-conclusion glaucoma)
This can come on all of a sudden; the patient ordinarily encounters torment and fast vision misfortune.
Luckily, the manifestations of agony and distress make the sufferer look for medical help, bringing about brief treatment, which for the most part keeps any lasting harm from happening.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (chronic glaucoma)
This type progresses very slowly. The patient may not feel any side effects; even a slight loss of vision may go unnoticed. In this type of glaucoma, numerous individuals don’t get restorative help until changeless harm has just happened.
This is a rarer type of glaucoma that specialists don’t completely get it. Despite the fact that eye weight is typical, optic nerve harm still happens. It may be because of reduced blood supply to the optic nerve.
This is a type of open-angle glaucoma and commonly creates during ahead of schedule or center adulthood. Color cells, which emerge from the iris, are scattered inside the eye. On the off chance that these cells develop in the channels that channel liquid from the eye, they can agitate the typical stream of liquids in the eye, prompting an ascent in eye pressure.
What are the symptoms of glaucoma?
The signs and symptoms of essential open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma are very extraordinary:
Symptoms of primary open-angle glaucoma
- Peripheral vision is gradually lost. This nearly always affects both eyes.
- In advanced stages, the patient has tunnel vision.
Symptoms of closed angle glaucoma
- Eye pain, usually severe.
- Blurred vision.
- Eye pain is often accompanied by nausea and sometimes vomiting.
- Lights appear to have extra halo-like glows around them.
- Red eyes.
- Sudden, unexpected vision problems, especially when lighting is poor.
Surgery for glaucoma
On the off chance that drugs don’t work, or if the patient can’t endure them, careful intercession might be a choice. The point of medical procedure is more often than not to cut down the weight inside the eye. Instances of the medical procedure include:
- Trabeculoplasty – a laser bar is utilized to unblock obstructed waste trenches, making it less demanding for the liquid inside the eye to deplete out.
- Filtering surgery ( viscocanalostomy ) – this might be done if nothing else works, including laser medical procedure. Channels inside the eye are opened up to improve liquid waste.
- Drainage implant (aqueous shunt implant) – this choice is now and then utilized for kids or those with optional glaucoma. A little silicone tube is embedded into the eye to enable it to deplete out liquids better.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma
Acute angle-closure glaucoma is treated as a medical emergency. Pressure-reducing medications are administered immediately. A laser procedure is usually carried out that creates a tiny hole in the iris, allowing fluids to pass into the trabecular meshwork (the drainage system of the eye) – this procedure is called an iridotomy.
Even if only one eye is affected, the doctor may decide to treat both, because this type of glaucoma often affects the other eye, too.
There is no realized method to anticipate glaucoma, however getting it early methods it very well may be dealt with all the more adequately and vision misfortune can be limited. Since, frequently, there are no side effects, getting your eyes routinely checked is imperative; particularly for individuals with a more serious risk.